Three years ago we wrote about our work on predicting a number of cardiovascular risk factors from fundus photos (i.e., photos of the back of the eye)1 using deep learning. That such risk factors could be extracted from fundus photos was a novel discovery and thus a surprising outcome to clinicians and laypersons alike. Since then, we and other researchers have discovered additional novel biomarkers from fundus photos, such as markers for chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and hemoglobin levels to detect anemia.
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